Baghdad to Bahawalpur
(Bahawalpur Pakistan) is neither a tale of two cities nor a traveling account as the name of the web site suggests. Bwp pertains to one of the interesting episodes of the history of the subcontinent. The story tells how adventurous Abbasid remnants after the downfall of their empire at Baghdad got another lease of life on the Indian soil.
The end of the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258 was not only an irreparable loss to the world of Islam but also a death blow to a glorious chapter of history and culture. Halaku khan thought that he had killed the whole clan of the Abbasids when he murdered the last Caliph and his sons. But history reveals that some of the Caliph’s nearest relatives had escaped and started the history of Bahawalpur. Abdul Qasim Ahmad son of the 35th Caliph Al-Zahir-bin-Amrillah took refuge with the memluk sultan of egypt Malik Zahir rukn-ud-din. Who accepted him as the Caliph under the title of Al-mustansir Billah. The new Caliph marched against Baghdad but was defeated and killed. Another section of Abbasid dynasty went to the court of the Tughlak sultan of Delhi.
But how did the Abbasids come to be recognized as heads of the islamic world even after the downfall of their empire. It happened in the eighth century of Hijra and this decision, more than everything else, served asan inducement to the successors of the Abbasid Caliphs to emigrate to the subcontinent.
Amir Sultan Ahmad, a descendant of Abdul Qasim was the first to march into Sindh via Kech Makra with a number of followers. He soon began to acquire strength and eventually his descendants became the rulers of Sindh. Later this Abbasids clan split into two sections. One of them Dauadpotra (sons of D’aud) Abbasids founded the state.
History Of Bahawalpur
It was an independent state until the creation of Pakistan 1947. The town of Bwp was built in about 1780 on an old site. It was Nawab Bahawal khan I (1746 to 1749) who laid the foundation of Baghdad-ul-jadidin 1748 and made it as his capital. His ruling period was nearly 3 years and was entombed in the graveyard of Malook Shah. Historical record shows that before the Sikh rule in Punjab the area of Bwp was much greater. Apart from the entire Dera Ghazi khan district. some parts of Sukkur, Multan, Sahiwal and Muzzafargarh districts were also included in it.
During its heydays Bwp was patronizing all notable Islamic institutions of the subcontinent including Aligarh Muslim University and Dar-ul-Ulms at nadva and deoband. The contribution of the State was not confined to the field of learning alone. During the decline of Mughal rule the state also served as abulwark against the inroads of Sikhs and Rajputs. It was Bwp which became anabode of peace for muslims.
The area that is now Cholistan was snatched along with its desert strongholds from Rajputs by the Abbasids rulers of the State. Had this not been done the history of the subcontinent would have been different. The present main Railway line connecting Karachi and Peshawar passed through this sensitive area called Bahawalpur. Bwp also did not allow Sikhs to cross the Sutlej river. On the birth of Pk the Princely State was the first state to join it and worked as an independent state till 1970. After that Bwp was included as a division in the province of Punjab.
Baghdad to Bahawalpur is the life story of people who have for the past many centuries have been serving Islam and the Islamic values in the subcontinent. Credit goes to our team for highlighting the achievements of these people. The web also contains some rare pictures which have important bearing on the history and culture of lower Punjab Pakistan.
Various documents given in the web site (www.mybahawalpur.com) brought to you by (Team Bwp) are of great value. Especially the letters of M.A Jinah, Allama Iqbal, Sir Agha khan, Mulana Shibli Naumani,Khawaja Ghulam Farid and others.
The Ruling Family
Bahawalpur state belongs to the ruling family of the Abbaside clan and has directly descended from Hazrat-i-Abbas, the uncle of Holy Prophet (May Peace Of Allah Be Upon Him). Amir of Bwp, Lt. General, His Highness, Alhaj Sir Sadiq Mohammad Khan V, was the sixtieth in descent from Hazrat-i-Abbas Alamdar.
In 655 A.H. the Abbaside Caliphate at Baghdad was dismembered as result of the invasion of Baghdad by Halaku Khan who ruthlessly ravaged the sanctity of the holy city and mercilessly butchered all the members of the ruling family except one Abbaside prince who could escape the terrible fate only because he was out of the capital at the time of great massacre. He was prince Abdul Qasim Ahmed who fled to Egypt accompanied by about ten of his faithful nobles. At that time the ruler of egypt was Malik Zahir Rukun-ud-Din who welcomed the fugitive prince and settled him down respectably in Cairo.
In an attempt to reconquer Baghdad in 660 A. H. Prince Abdul Qasim suffered a heavy defeat and was lost in the war. Few of those who returned alive form the battlefield included one Abbaside prince Abul Abbas Al-Hakim, who was direct descendant of the twenty fifth Abbaside Caliph, Al-Mansor-al-fazlal Abbasi and was later installed as the second Abbaside caliph in Egypt.He was followed by fourteen more Abbaside princes and thus the Khilafat continued for another 255 years when, in 945 A. H., the last Caliph of this dynasty, Al-Mutawakkil, died and the Caliphate was diverted to Benu Usman.
Destiny and History of Bahawalpur Pakistan Starts Here
The exodus of the Abbaside nobles of Egypt to India had already started in about 725 A. H., in the reign of Mohammad Tughlak-ben-Ghias-ud-din. In 767 A. H. (1366 A. D.) Amir Sultan Ahmed II Abbasi fifth in direct direct descent from Abdul Qasim Ahmed (The First Abbaside Caliph Installed in Egypt) migrated to india with his family members and a few hundred followers and entered into sindh through Balochistan.
His entry was challenged by the then ruler of Sindh, Rao Dhorang, who threatened war, but yielded to the Amir. In course of time the Amir’s family gradually moved northward, loosing much of the Sindh territory, but finally settled down at Derawar and in the vicinity of the present city of Bahawalpur.
The rulers first owed allegiance to Afghanistan but on the fall of the durani empire which was followed by the expulsion of Shah Shuja from Kabul they assumed independence. The rulers of the State faithfully implemented the terms of the treaty signed in 1838 between the East India Company and Nawab Bahawal Khan III.
Army of Bahawalpur
The Army was always up to the task and history reveals that for the first time in 1837 the Amir of the town sent a tidy Army Squad to the battlefield to help Shah Shuja and in return Bhoong Bhara and Koat Sabzal were granted to the Government of Bhawalpur.
In 1847 British Government requested Nawab Bahawal Khan for help in the Multan Campaign against the Sikh ruler named Molraj. Therefore a squad of 22 thousands of armed men was sent with all accessories.The army was able to militate with such courage that British Government said, it would have been impossible to conquer multan without this Squad of Army.
Given below are some the famous battles in which the army of Bahawalpur took part.
Second war of Kabul, North Africa, World war of 1914-18, World war of 1939-46, Wazeristan, Afghanistan, Palestine, Valley of Urdan.
Except the war of China 1901 the army of the state took part in all battles.
Aside past it is now a much more developed city of Pakistan. It has become a Mega city in terms of Real Estate, Parks, Markets and Institutions. All kinds of facilities are away just by a phone call.
Newly designed home views. Bazaars look distinctive, embroidered cloths, slippers and the delicate locally made filigree pottery. Developed roads, environment and green belts make the city glorious.